After one year, on 23 June 2023, experts dealing with labor and social law from Central Europe met again in order to discuss the challenges of the sustainability of social security systems in the light of demographic processes under the title 'Sustainability of the Social Security System - Demographic Challenges and Answers' at an international scientific conference. At the event, the legislative steps taken for the sustainability of the Slovenian, Romanian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovak, Czech, Polish and Hungarian health and pension insurance systems were presented, with their critical evaluation. The conference was jointly organized by the Central European Academy, the Department of Agrarian and Labor Law of the Faculty of State and Law, and the Miskolc Area Committee of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in the Eperjes Hall of the Faculty of Law. The presentation of the individual country chapters was followed by a correlative report interpreted by Hungarian and foreign specialists. The conference also contributed to the finalization of an English-language textbook for PhD students.